Obama To Air General Election Ad in 18 States

by: Chris Bowers

Thu Jun 19, 2008 at 14:09

Obama is hitting the airwaves with a major general election advertising purchase, to the tune of $3M per week across 18 states:

The ad will air in Alaska, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Virginia, per the campaign.

The only changes from the 17 states targeted by the organizing fellows program are the removal of New Jersey, Oregon and Washington, and the addition of Alaska, Indiana, Montana and North Dakota. Those are good changes, as they target "Lean McCain" states instead of lean-to-solid Obama states. Here is the ad:

Here is a transcript of the ad. I have highlighted conservative frames in bold, and progressive frames in underline:

I'm Barack Obama. America is a country of strong families and strong values. My life's been blessed by both. I was raised by a single mom and my grandparents. We didn't have much money, but they taught me values straight from the Kansas heartland where they grew up. Accountability and self-reliance. Love of country. Working hard without making excuses. Treating your neighbor as you'd like to be treated. It's what guided me as I worked my way up - taking jobs and loans to make it through college. It's what led me to pass up Wall Street jobs and go to Chicago instead, helping neighborhoods devastated when steel plants closed. That's why I passed laws moving people from welfare to work, cut taxes for working families and extended health care for wounded troops who'd been neglected. I approved this message because I'll never forget those values, and if I have the honor of taking the oath of office as President, it will be with a deep and abiding faith in the country I love."

It is definitely a mixed bag, trying to appeal to a wide range of people. The progressive frames include non-traditional family background, a community approach to governing, valuing service over Wall Street, and implications about increasing health care and opposing trade deals that hurt working families. The conservative frames are equally abundant, with talk of "self-reliance," "heartland," cutting taxes, "welfare," and lots of emphasis on values and country.

I wonder if the ad is too muddled in order to be effective. While both progressives and conservatives will hear frames that they like in the ad, everyone will also hear things that they don't like. Fundamentally the ad is chasing after both types of voters instead of trying to persuade them. Overall, it might end up leaving a mixed impression.

The real test, of course, will be swing state polling in three to four weeks. This ad campaign, combined with the organizing fellows campaign, means that Obama is now targeting virtually every state that can realistically be described as "swing." If Obama's already statistically significant lead increases by mid-July, then the campaign will have been effective. If not, then this ad simply will not have been good enough.  

Chris Bowers :: Obama To Air General Election Ad in 18 States

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A bit disappointed (4.00 / 3)
I agree with Chris' analysis - there's a bit of a weird muddle of frames here, and I wish he had emphasized his progressive background more.  I hope that this won't be the kind of ad they run until November.

That said, looking at where this ad is going to be broadcast, I think this is simply a biographical "Hey, not a Muslim" ad, which seems to be one of their major aims lately.  It would seem to me that what they're trying to do is to establish a bit of trust with lower information voters, and then hit them over the head with the change message as things heat up and earlier efforts have (hopefully) secured additional credibility for Obama as the preferable agent of change.  

That would make sense, I think, and I anticipate most of the ads that follow will be focused on Obama as representing change, with a more progressive frame (particularly as the McCain campaign ups the ante with more ads of their own).

Absolutely agree. This is the 'I'm not (4.00 / 7)
scary' ad. Bland pablum, but honestly, what's to dislike? Moving people from welfare to work might be a conservative frame, but it's a progressive goal. 'Strong values' undergird every progressive policy. Is anyone against 'self-reliance' and 'not making excuses'?

These are all frames we should co-opt, as they're already a better fit with progressive values, so long as we also mention community and service.

The only thing I dislike is 'taxes,' because in my dreamworld, we all start using the terms 'patriotic dues' or 'homeland investment' instead of 'taxes.'

That said, this is completely 'eh'. But reassuring. And when I do phone-banking, I realize that many, many people reassurance. And strategically ... if this just gets McCain worrying about (spending money in?) a few more states, that's wonderful.

[ Parent ]
"I'm not scary" (4.00 / 8)
He already has the "change" vote. I don't think he needs to do much convincing on that front. On the other hand, there are millions of low-information voters who want change, realize that Washington business as usual sucks, favor progressive policies, but are susceptible to fear-mongering of secret muslim radical negro unpatriotic liberal elitist eats fancy lettuce bullshit. This is a necessary ad, and in my opinion he smacked it out of the park. It is sad that such an ad is necessary, but given that sucky context, the ad is brilliant. And it manages to promote progressive values in a way that can be easily embraced by an audience that has been trained to believe that "liberal" is the antithesis of their values.


[ Parent ]
Non-verbal part is great (4.00 / 2)
The non-verbal parts of the ad are very important as well.

Obama looks right into the camera showing the right level of strength.

There are also a lot of images of "closeness".  I especially like the old lady with the hand on Obama's shoulder and then he leans in to hear what she has to say.  That scene speaks volumes about who Barack Obama is.  This ties very much into the "he is not scary" theme.

McCain on the minimum wage

[ Parent ]
Taxes... (0.00 / 0)
There is nothing wrong with cutting taxes... in fact I argue that its not a conservative frame.  With taxes, you HAVE to take the whole thing which is CUT TAXES FOR WORKING FAMILIES which is a very progressive frame.

[ Parent ]
I'm not against cutting (0.00 / 0)
the 'homeland dues' of working families, I just would like us  to acknowledge that taxes are dues, they're not just something taken away from us--something's given back in return. We improve, build, defend, educate, treat, etc. the country with that money.

[ Parent ]
Speaking to one's audience (0.00 / 0)
I thought it was a fairly conservative ad attempting to sway voters in largely conservative states. Those voters that will be highly critical in November and likely not real progressive. That said, I'm not real enamored with the content of the message. Especially the section relating to "Working hard without making excuses", as Obama should know better after working as a community organizer in the poorer areas of Chicago. More "Gospel of Wealth" crap.

If he decides to run ads in states like New York, Vermont or CA, I'm sure we would see a completely different message.  

[ Parent ]
At the end of the day he is running to win in some conservative places (4.00 / 2)
Everyone would prefer lower taxes but want they really want is their tax dollars to be spent effectively so am not sure it is particularly ''conservative'' to campaign on these themes. Same goes for self-reliance and strong values. They aren't inherently ''conservative'' ideas. The GOP has just perverted them to mean something else. But like you say time will tell how good or bad the ad is. I am encouraged though by the offense this buy indicates.

Thats not necessarily true... (0.00 / 0)
Some people NEED lower taxes, as the salary gap and dollar value goes in the tank.  Many people could use that extra money per year to help them make ends meet.  NOW... those same people don't mind paying some taxes... and with that which they pay they DO want it spent better.

[ Parent ]
A Republican could run this ad (0.00 / 0)
Really. The only possible non-Republican thing is boasting about not going to Wall Street.

Maybe the Golden Rule is progressive but it's also straight out of Leviticus, so the messaging seems pretty clear.

By the way, Louisiana never shows up on a list of swing states, did Katrina racially cleanse it to the point that it's a safe GOP state?

Not really (4.00 / 1)
The only non-Republican things? Do we not want to cut taxes for working families? Also, the "golden rule," or however you choose to refer it, is decidedly non-exclusive to Judeo-Christianity, so while it may have some appeal in that regard, it is fundamentally transcendent of religions (as it is a central message of virtually all of them, not to mention agnostics, atheists, and the like). He's not saying he worships a vengeful America God who will seal the border and kill all non-heteros.

On the whole, this is hardly Lieberman-esque - perhaps not awesomely progressive, but let's get real. It's a bio ad in crimson states, don't expect Bernie Sanders in the first general election spot he's putting out there in states that are decidedly not blue. This isn't the only ad he'll be running, and I have more faith in him than I did the alternatives.  

[ Parent ]
Republicans certainly (0.00 / 0)
say they want to cut taxes for working families; McCain will in his ads.

[ Parent ]
by the end of 2007 (4.00 / 1)
the New Orleans pop. was only back to about 65% of pre-Katrina levels.

However, given the deep anger still present, and the current massive voter registration drives, I would bet very strongly that the percentage of eligible New Orleans citizens who vote in November will skyrocket. Enough to make a difference? We'll see.

I agree that LA could be in play, but I think the lack of polling and the current average--McCain 51.7 Obama 38.3--has kept it out of the conversation.

[ Parent ]
Yeah.... (0.00 / 0)
I agree there's things progressives won't like, but I can't see anything that all but the most conservative of conservatives wouldn't like. If he's introducing himself to white working class voters, then talking about steel plants closing and (however gently) disparaging Wall Street is a good thing.

Also, I don't think LA has been a swing state for a while now. The fact that Jindal won is not a good sign. I would put Arkansas ahead of Louisiana at this point. It's basically like Mississippi except with less African-Americans. Kerry couldn't even get a few more votes in Catholic Arcadia compared to Methodist Bush. It will be closer obviously, but I'd put more resources in NC, VA, and even MS since it's a cheaper market.

[ Parent ]
WTF (0.00 / 0)
Please show us how this is straight out of leviticus... seriously, hyperbole much?

[ Parent ]
Leviticus 19:18 (0.00 / 0)
"Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself."

[ Parent ]
In fairness, it is more of a New Testament message. (0.00 / 0)
"Love your neighbor as yourself" gets a lot more prominence in the red-letter sections of the New Testament than in Leviticus, where it's one small statement that mostly gets washed away with the harsh stuff.

[ Parent ]
Matthew 7:12 (0.00 / 0)

"So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets."

Young Scotty Jenkins, so big and able
Saw his fair colleen stretched by the wall
Tore the left leg from under the table
And smashed all the dishes at Flannigan's Ball


[ Parent ]
That doesn't make it (4.00 / 1)
a bad thing; I was just pointing out that progressives don't have a monopoly on this value.

In fact, I think it's a pretty good idea to use religious-coded lingo.

To be clear, I don't think this is a awful ad. I'd prefer something in which the progressive values were expressed a bit more unambiguously, but there's only so much you can in an intro-bio ad. The stronger stuff will come later.

[ Parent ]
"strong values" itself in bold? (4.00 / 4)
I dunno about calling "strong values" in the first sentence a "conservative frame" in and of itself - isn't that  what we're trying to change?

As an educated voter, and a committed progressive, I do look for a politician to use the language of "values" to describe their approach to governance and leadership - because I want us to reclaim that language from Republicans that have tarnished it.  It's not just Red State voters listening for that word... not anymore!

I agree--we have "strong values" (4.00 / 7)
I think there's a little too much parsing in this analysis.  "Strong values" isn't a progressive theme?  What, we are all opportunists with no principles or values?  Time to retire that idea.  And "self-reliance"--time to take that one over too.  Here's Obama being applauded for not taking public funds, but relying on his abilities and his donor network.  And "tax cuts" in isolation?  When it's right next to "for working families"?  I think that's all one phrase.  Ok, Lakoff wants us to use "tax reform" or something like that, but this will be heard by the audience he is aiming at.  Look at where it's running.  Not on the Pacific Coast or in NY or New England.  And it's an introductory ad in a variety of places, some of which he campaigned in but many he didn't.  I'm not upset.

John McCain--He's not who you think he is.

[ Parent ]
I agree. (0.00 / 0)
Chris Bowers and I don't agree on which side owns which frame.  

But I believe the ad is weak not because of the "muddy" mixture of left and right frames, but simply because of the overwhelming number of them.  

If you're hearing the ad on television without the benefit of a transcript to follow, very little of it will sink in, and even less will be retained.  This is a case where less would have been more.

[ Parent ]
I don't think it's about sinking in.... (4.00 / 4)
it's about warm fuzzy feelings. Humanizing him and showing that he isn't some weird foreigner.

It's just a narrative ad. It's not meant to lay out any policy specifics. So it's fine for that.

[ Parent ]
Agreed, and glad you brought it up (0.00 / 0)
If I understand Chris correctly, he's implying discussions of values inherently follow conservative framings.  Like the others in this thread, I don't see it that way.

Framings based on values can be trans-partisan, and I think Obama's is here.

[ Parent ]
Agreed (0.00 / 0)
Since when did progressives cede "values" to conservatives? I think children born today should get the best education possible, I think they should be guarenteed insurance so they can get preventative health care, I think they should grow up to see the natural wonders available to us today, I think they should be free of a government that seeks to control them through fear, and I think all of those things are core American values.

Also, since when is the "heartland" conservative? Some of the most powerful populist and progressive movements this country has seen were born in the heartland by activist farmers.

The only thing that screamed "conservative" to me was "welfare to work." Other than that, spot on bio spot.

[ Parent ]
you might as well bold (4.00 / 6)
Love of country and deep and abiding faith in the country I love too.

To me, this fits in with and strongly reinforces his dismissal of the Red State/Blue State dichotomy, which, given his breakout keynote speech 4 years ago, and the landslide of chatter about it that followed, may be the one political concept that low-information voters everywhere most closely associate with him. I think it's a good re-introduction.

It Doesn't Hurt, Either, That Those Are ACTUALLY Liberal Frames (4.00 / 1)
The conservative alternative was presented--and rejected--in the form of the Civil War.

"You know what they say -- those of us who fail history... doomed to repeat it in summer school." -- Buffy The Vampire Slayer, Season 6, Episode 3

[ Parent ]
Great Ad (4.00 / 11)
I think it is great for several reasons.

A) The frames he uses are are biconceptual (Lakoff term: http://www.rockridgeinstitute.... and speak to liberals, conservatives, and those with mixed values (biconceptuals). He should do this- he is not running for just the progressive vote, but trying for all votes.

B) The frames are mixed-but the narrative is clear--"this is who I am and this is my history and it is tied to my patriotism." This is not Kerry's J-HOES travesty.

C) The whole ad is values-based, not data driven or full of numbers. People are moved by values more than anything else. People will remember the values.  

We won the Battle. Now the Real Fight for Change Begins. Join MoveOn.org and fight for progressive change.  

Precisely! (0.00 / 0)
My longwinded comment below is merely elaborating a bit on what's said much more concisely here.

"You know what they say -- those of us who fail history... doomed to repeat it in summer school." -- Buffy The Vampire Slayer, Season 6, Episode 3

[ Parent ]
Values (4.00 / 3)
While I understand the concern about muddled frames, I find there isn't a thing in this ad I disagree with.  I'm not against family values, I'm not against moving people from welfare to work.  But I am against how Republicans have warped these values into something else.

Now it is very true that a Republican could make the same ad, stealing some liberal frames to make him look less scary to moderates.  But that's fine.  It is a good introduction for the general election.

McCain and Obama have real policy differences they are constantly debating back and forth in the press.  It is those differences that prevent Obama from riding the muddled middle for more than a few good ads.

Weak ad, AWESOME strategy (0.00 / 0)
I was talking with someone last night, saying "I wish he'd spend a ton of money in a whole bunch of close/lean McCain states starting right now so that he can put McCain on the defensive long before September." I'm glad to see this happening.

But I agree with you, and I hope folks are right that this is just a "bio" ad. I hope they're right, but I'm pretty sure they're not. This is the type of thing we'll be hearing from Obama for the rest of the election. When John Edwards lost Iowa we lost the only chance we had for a candidate who would have mainstreamed progressivism. Instead we have a progressive candidate who is also mainstream. The difference is easy to miss, but important. And people will continue to leap to his defense and attack anyone who points out this problem.

I support John McCain because children are too healthy anyway.

I Share These Misgivings (0.00 / 0)
No surprise, since I've been articulating them since 2006.

But I wouldn't call this ad "weak" on that account.  I think it's a strong ad, precisely because this is how he ought to start out.

The weakness is that I share your fears that we won't get much beyond this.

"You know what they say -- those of us who fail history... doomed to repeat it in summer school." -- Buffy The Vampire Slayer, Season 6, Episode 3

[ Parent ]
Forgive me for doing so... (0.00 / 0)
But I JUST CAN'T WAIT to say TOLD YOU SO when Obama proves your fears wrong.

[ Parent ]
Fears (0.00 / 0)
I think these fears would be warranted if it wasn't for Obama's other main political talent: counter-punching.

We've seen time and again whenever Obama is attacked for holding some position he doubles-down on the position and attacks the other for not sharing that view.  (Think negotiations, gas tax holiday, mandates, Pakistan, etc.)

Already we've seen debates in the media between Obama and McCain about various foreign policy issues where Obama strongly attacked McCain for his positions.  If the same trend continues, we'll soon hear more about off-shore oil drilling and more.

So while your fears may very well be verified in speeches Obama gives and in commercials, I think the overall narrative will include many strong attacks on conservative positions and equally strong defense of liberal policies.

[ Parent ]
He's Pretty Good At Counterpunching US (0.00 / 0)
 See, for instance, his deathly silence on FISA, while meanwhile cutting an ad for Bush Dog Barrow.

It would have been child's play for him to stop all this nonsense, now that he's clearly the nominee-elect.  No, it would have been leadership.

Considering that we've got a solid majority of the American people with us on FISA, his failure to lead is not just a failure to be progressive.  It's just plain dumb, politically.

"You know what they say -- those of us who fail history... doomed to repeat it in summer school." -- Buffy The Vampire Slayer, Season 6, Episode 3

[ Parent ]
My two bits.... (0.00 / 0)
If Thurston Clarke's The Last Campaign can be said to safely "overlay" Bobby's Kennedy's campaigning process to Obama's, wherever Obama does face-to-face visits in conjunction with this ad, then most voters will remember what they liked about it and de-emphasize what they didn't like.

The question is, if voters rely on this as without being able to see Obama face to face, will poll numbers, in the immediate future, drop any or go stagnant in that given state?  

Optimistic for PA (4.00 / 1)
Substance aside (always a great way to start), I like the delivery and think it will play well in some swing states like mine.  We all know that Obama's strength is in his syntactic rhetoric, which makes him uniquely advantaged to make a 60-second argument that is fluid, but thorough.  McCain is still focusing his message on SINGLE words like "bitter" and "pork."  

This is kind of advantage that we saw in Philly in '07, when Michael Nutter came from the back of a pack that included the city's machine's boss, a wildly popular/populist Congressman and a determined plutocrat dominating the airwaves.  See the approach in action: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v...

John McCain: "I do not support Roe versus Wade. It should be overturned."

It's perfectly unobjectionable (4.00 / 1)
As someone who considers himself progressive, I see nothing objectionable in this ad.

I'm certainly not bothered that he mentions "values," the "heartland" and "self-reliance."  

As others have said, this is merely biographical and serves the necessary purpose of introducing Obama as someone who is not scary.  Nor do I consider this "muddled."

There will be plenty of time for substantive, pointed ads later.

I Just Heard George Lakoff Talking About Obama (4.00 / 3)
I just got home, and the last few minutes in my car I listened to George Lakoff being interviewed on the best local NPR news station, KPPC/Pasadena.  He was talking about how Obama's campaign was centered on empathy, and how that was the key liberal value.  He also talked about how conservatives have a 30-year head start in building their message infrastructure, which is why progressives generally face an uphill battle.

So that's the frame of mind I was in when I turned on my computer & watched this ad.  And from that perspective, I am really not bothered by the presence of some rightwing frames--which in some cases aren't really frames at all, but rather words that conservatives have tried to frame and brand as their own. (Yes, "values," I'm talking about you!  But "self-reliance" and "without making excuses" are covered as well.  No one makes more excuses and is less self-reliant than the multi-generational cronified GOP base exemplified by the Bush "Pioneers.")

I am more concerned, over the long run, that there is some real confusion and some mistaken ideas he has that show up in the policy arena, but though they could be related, I don't see anything inherently troubling in this ad.  Here's why, in a little more detail:

(1) I agree that it's an intentionally bland, introductory "I'm not scary" ad, whose principle purpose to push back against rightwing attempts to define him.  I believe it does this pretty effectively, and the use of some conservative code-words--more than frames--is done in the service of that.

(2) Moreover, using the codewords in this way, alongside of some progressive codewords, and within a generally progressive frame, has the over-riding effect of introducing him in a depolarizing context.  This is precisely the right way to "triangulate"--and if it were the only form that triangulation took in Obama's poltiics, I would be pleased as punch.

The reason I say this is that decades of public opinion polling shows vast liberal/conservative overlap on issues, with hardline conservatives as a marginal minority.  They have gained this dominance in large part by polarizing narratives that demonize liberals and associate them with caricatures.  The sort of "triangulation" embodied in this ad is that which triangulates between the false claims used to identify hardline conservatives with mainstream conservatives, and thence with mainstream values on the one hand, and the demonized progressive position on the other.

This sort of triangulation between two lies actually returns us to a reasonable semblance of the truth.  He is talking about a balanced progressive approach that has broad public support, and there's oodles of polling data to prove it.

(3) There's nothing wrong with "values straight from the Kansas heartland."  One reason why Dole did so poorly in 1996 was that hardline conservatives weren't really behind him, because he was, as they once described him, a "tax-collector for the welfare state."  He recovered from his WWII battlefield wounds through a combination of government and community support, and that combination is part of the Kansas ethos that really is deeply at odds with the Southern-centered profoundly anti-government ideology embraced by hardline conservatives.

This is not to say I loves me some Bob Dole.  I'm not even that jazzed by Kathleen Sebelius.  But I appreciate both of them in contrast to the deranged ideology at the core of the modern GOP.  We have a common starting point for political dialogue with them--and thus with roughly 75-80% of the American people.

Okay, enough!  Any longer than that, and it would have to be a diary.

"You know what they say -- those of us who fail history... doomed to repeat it in summer school." -- Buffy The Vampire Slayer, Season 6, Episode 3

I'm a liberal and I believe in accountability and self reliance. (0.00 / 0)
I have strong values. Does that make me muddled?

Is it not progressive to move from welfare to work? Is it not progressive to be accountable for oneself? It seems your parsing of this ad is playing by republican rules. They don't own values and self reliance. They don't own love of country and even, dare I say, the heartland.

I agree... (0.00 / 0)
For instance, McCain and Bush and the GOP need to be HELP ACCOUNTABLE for Iraq, FISA, and screwing up the country in general.   IRAQ needs to learn self reliance so we can get the heck out of there.

[ Parent ]
We're not the audience (4.00 / 1)
The target here is what the GOP refers to as "squishies", people without enough of an ideological committment to reflexively vote the party line.  He has to use the conservative frames because those are the frames those voters respond to, it's how the GOP has camoflaged themselves to them.  If he just concedes them to McCain without a fight, they go with the guy who talks about what they care about.

Face it, we always knew he would have to turn to the middle.  This isn't the time for an ideological war, our highest priority has to be getting as many Senators as possible.  Ideally, we get to 60 and we can re-write the rules so the minority can't hold the process hostage so easily.  But minimally, we have to get close enough that we only need to chip off a couple of moderates, because a "couple" is about all that's left.

There are lots of people out there only vaguely aware that the Democrats nominated a black man, and they don't have any defined image of what an Obama presidency would mean.  This ad is about introducing him to those people.

The only quibble I've we've got is that I think he should be buying into some of the national niche cable networks that don't already have a heavy ideological bias.  No point in doing that on the Green Channel or the Miltary channel, but SciFi, Lifetime, TVLand, and the Food Network?  Yeah, that would be some good bang for the buck in reaching out to low-information voters.

It's defensive (0.00 / 0)
I think it shows that the right already has him on the defensive. The whole "I'm not scary" feeling of it is just defensive.  

I don't know if this ad is is good or bad but it is not a proactive effort to define him on his terms, it is a defensive effort -- I'm not those things they say about me.

Maybe they have tested and determined that he needs this because they've sure been out there working that negative stuff.

And I know I'll see them get out in front of it and start putting it on their terms.  


Seeing The Forest -- Who is our economy FOR, anyway? Twitter: dcjohnson

I think it's excellent (0.00 / 0)
I'm a little turned off personally by the multipurpose nature of the various messages and frames, but, bottom line, I think it will work.

Obama comes across as confident and as if he speaks from conviction. This is important to a lot of voters. (It's important to me too, but it's not something I'd assess based on a television ad.) And it does a good job of linking messages which, at the very least, can be construed as progressive, to a plausible sense of moral purpose. I'm always astonished by the degree to which conservatives perceive progressive policy positions as grounded in something other than moral conviction, but they do. I think this ad will counter that impression, at least among moderates.

These kinds of ads have their place in a campaign -- if they hit their mark they leave a kind of emotional afterglow that makes voters a little less responsive to the attack ads that will come later. They're often overdone, but this one really hits the mark for its type.

Saturating the airwaves in important states with this kind vague and happy music is, in my opinion, a really good move.  

'Strong values' not a conservative frame (0.00 / 0)
I have very strong progressive values.  The moment progressives cede the values territory, we lose -- I don't think Obama reinforces conservative frames by saying his approach is grounded in his values.


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